More Readings

For those interested in digging deeper into Human-Robot Interaction, here is an extended bibliography of worthwhile HRI papers, according to topics:


Breazeal, C. (2004). Social Interactions in HRI: The Robot View. IEEE Transactions on SMC, Part C, 34(2), 181–186.

Breazeal, C. (2002). Designing Sociable Machines: Lessons Learned. In K. Dautenhahn, A. H. Bond, L. Canamero, & B. Edmonds (Eds.), The Intentional Stance (pp. 149–156). Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Treating Objects as Agents with Mental States

Heider, F., & Simmel, M. (1944). An experimental study of apparent behavior. The American Journal of Psychology, 57(2), 243–259.

Dennett, D. C. (1987). Three kinds of intentional psychology. In The Intentional Stance. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Scholl, B., & Tremoulet, P. (2000). Perceptual causality and animacy. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4(8), 299–309.

Gao, T., Newman, G. E., & Scholl, B. J. (2009). The psychophysics of chasing : A case study in the perception of animacy. Cognitive Psychology, 59(2), 154–179.

Surveys of Social Robotics / HRI

Fong, T., Nourbakhsh, I., & Dautenhahn, K. (2003). A Survey of Socially Interactive Robots. Robotics and Autonomous Systems, 42(November), 143–166.

Goodrich, M. A., & Schultz, A. C. (2007). Human-Robot Interaction: A Survey. Foundations and Trends in Human-Computer Interaction, 1(3), 203–275.

Human-Robot Collaboration

Shah et al. (2011). Improved human-robot team performance using CHASKI, a human-inspired plan execution system. In Proceedings of the 6th international conference on Human-robot interaction, pp. 29-36. [PDF]

Hoffman, G., & Breazeal, C. (2010). Effects of anticipatory perceptual simulation on practiced human-robot tasks. Autonomous Robots, 28(4), 403-423. [PDF]

Designing Social Robots

Sirkin, D., Mok, B., Yang, S., & Ju, W. (2015). Mechanical ottoman: how robotic furniture offers and withdraws support. In Proc. of the Tenth Annual ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (HRI’15), pp. 11-18.


Kahn, P. H., Freier, N. G., Kanda, T., Ishiguro, H., Ruckert, J. H., Severson, R. L., & Kane, S. K. (2008). Design patterns for sociality in human-robot interaction. In Proc. of the 3rd ACM/IEEE international conference on Human robot interaction (HRI’08), pp. 97-104.


Hoffman, G., & Ju, W. (2014). Designing robots with movement in mind. Journal of Human-Robot Interaction, 3(1), 89-122.

Domestic Robots

Dautenhahn, K., Woods, S., Kaouri, C., Walters, M., Koay, K. L., & Werry, I. (2005). What is a robot companion — friend, assistant, or butler?, in IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, IROS’05.

Forlizzi, J. (2007). How Robotic Products Become Social Products : An Ethnographic Study of Cleaning in the Home. Human Factors.

Gockley, R., et al. (2005). Designing robots for long-term social interaction. In 2005 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems.(IROS 2005). (pp. 1338–1343).

Workplace Robots

Hinds, P. J., Roberts, T. L., & Jones, H. (2004). Whose Job is it Anyway? A Study of Human-Robot Interaction in a Collaborative Task. Human Computer Interaction, 19(1&2), 151–181.

Takayama, L., & Nass, C. (2008). Beyond Dirty , Dangerous and Dull : What Everyday People Think Robots Should Do. Assessment.

Assistive Robots

Feil-Seifer, D., & Mataric, M. (2011). Socially Assistive Robotics. IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine, 18(1), 24–31.

Sharkey, A., & Sharkey, N. (2012). Granny and the robots: ethical issues in robot care for the elderly. Ethics and Information Technology, 14(1), 27–40.

Nonverbal Behavior: Proxemics and Gestures

Mumm, J., & Mutlu, B. (2011). Human-robot proxemics: physical and psychological distancing in human-robot interaction. In Proceedings of the 6th international conference on Human-robot interaction – HRI ’11 (p. 331).

Breazeal, C., Kidd, C. D., Thomaz, A. L., Hoffman, G., & Berlin, M. (2005). Effects of nonverbal communication on efficiency and robustness in human-robot teamwork. In IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS).

Takayama, L., & Pantofaru, C. (2009). Influences on Proxemic Behaviors in Human-Robot Interaction. In IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2009. IROS’09 (pp. 5495–5502).

Ammi et al. (2015). Haptic Human-Robot Affective Interaction in a Handshaking Social Protocol. In Proc. of the Tenth Annual ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (HRI’15), pp. 263-270.

Nonverbal Behavior: Gaze and Eye Contact

Srinivasan, V., & Murphy, R. R. (2011). A survey of social gaze. In Human-Robot Interaction (HRI), 2011 6th ACM/IEEE International Conference on (pp. 253–254).

Rich, C., Ponsler, B., Holroyd, A., & Sidner, C. L. (2010). Recognizing engagement in human-robot interaction. In Human-Robot Interaction (HRI), 2010 5th ACM/IEEE International Conference on (pp. 375–382).

Mutlu, B., Forlizzi, J., & Hodgins, J. (2006). A storytelling robot: Modeling and evaluation of human-like gaze behavior. In Humanoid Robots, 2006 6th IEEE-RAS International Conference on (pp. 518–523).

Boucher, J.-D., Pattacini, U., Lelong, A., Bailly, G., Elisei, F., Fagel, S., … Ventre-Dominey, J. (2012). I reach faster when I see you look: gaze effects in human–human and human–robot face-to-face cooperation. Frontiers in Neurorobotics, 6.

Admoni, H., Dragan, A., Srinivasa, S. S., & Scassellati, B. (2014). Deliberate delays during robot-to-human handovers improve compliance with gaze communication. In Proceedings of the 2014 ACM/IEEE international conference on Human-robot interaction (pp. 49–56).

Moon, et al. (2014). Meet me where i’m gazing: how shared attention gaze affects human-robot handover timing. In Proc. of the 10th ACM/IEEE international conference on Human-robot interaction (HRI’14).

Persuasive Robots

Siegel, M., Breazeal, C., & Norton, M. I. (2009). Persuasive Robotics : The Influence of Robot Gender on Human Behavior. In IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) (pp. 2563–2568).

Rae, I., Takayama, L., & Mutlu, B. (2013). The influence of height in robot-mediated communication. In 2013 8th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) (pp. 1–8).

Hoffman, G., Birnbaum, G. E., Vanunu, K., Sass, O., & Reis, H. T. (2014). Robot responsiveness to human disclosure affects social impression and appeal. In Proceedings of the 2014 ACM/IEEE international conference on Human-robot interaction (pp. 1–8).

Music Playing Robots

Weinberg, G., & Driscoll, S. (2006). Toward Robotic Musicianship. Computer Music Journal, 30(4), 28–45.

Hoffman, G. (2011). On stage: Robots as performers. In RSS 2011 Workshop on Human-Robot Interaction: Perspectives and Contributions to Robotics from the Human Sciences.

Robots and Theater

Knight, H. (2011). Eight lessons learned about non-verbal interactions through robot theater. In Social Robotics (pp. 42–51). Springer.

Dixon, S. (2004). Metal performance: humanizing robots, returning to nature, and camping about. The Drama Review, 48(4).

Robots and Ethics

Wallach, W., & Allen, C. (2009). Moral machines: Teaching robots right from wrong. Oxford University Press.

Malle, B. F., Scheutz, M., Arnold, T., Voiklis, J., & Cusimano, C. (2015). Sacrifice One For the Good of Many?: People Apply Different Moral Norms to Human and Robot Agents. In Proceedings of the Tenth Annual ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (pp. 117-124). ACM.

Kahn Jr, P. H., Kanda, T., Ishiguro, H., Gill, B. T., Ruckert, J. H., Shen, S., … & Severson, R. L. (2012, March). Do people hold a humanoid robot morally accountable for the harm it causes?. In Proceedings of the seventh annual ACM/IEEE international conference on Human-Robot Interaction (pp. 33-40).

Kahn Jr, P. H., Kanda, T., Ishiguro, H., Freier, N. G., Severson, R. L., Gill, B. T., … & Shen, S. (2012). “Robovie, you’ll have to go into the closet now”: Children’s social and moral relationships with a humanoid robot. Developmental psychology, 48(2), 303.

Philosophical Views

Turkle, S. (2007). Authenticity in the age of digital companions. Interaction Studies.

Brooks, Rodney (1990) Elephants Don’t Play Chess. Robotics and Autonomous Systems 6: 3-15.

Watt, S. (2009). Can people think? or machines? In R. Epstein, G. Roberts, & G. Beber (Eds.), Parsing the Turing Test (pp. 301-318). Springer Netherlands.